Este é um texto extremamente inspirador e sintético sobre a reflexão socio-econônima de PROUT. Apesar de muitos conceitos terem sido detalhados anos depois, o autor escolheu os primeiros anos de seu trabalho na organização da Ananda Marga para resumir a teoria. O texto é a concatenação de 6 dias de discursos, de 17 a 22 de 1959.
Ele foi extraído do Electronic Works of P. R. Sarkar.
To the memory of Prabhá
–Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
The universe is the psychic and internal projection of Cosmic Consciousness, and ours is a reflected projection. We cannot create anything original. Whatever we do, we do with the physical waves radiated from matter. We can [only] change their form and create chemical compounds or physical mixtures. Thus ours is a physico-psychic or extro-internal projection.
Rudimental factors cannot be created by human beings, hence ownership lies with the Cosmic Entity and not with individuals. We can only use these factors. We are like the members of a joint family under the Dáyabhága(1) system of law sermonized by Shrii Jiimutabahana Bhattacharya.
This universe is our common patrimony. Ours is a universal joint family, Parama Puruśa [Cosmic Consciousness] being Supreme Father. Like members of a joint family, we should live with the policy of “Live and let others live.” The exploited and unexploited potentialities of the world do not belong to any particular person, nation or state. They can only enjoy these potentialities. We are to utilize all the mundane and supramundane wealth accepting the principle of Cosmic inheritance. This is our social dharma. It is not only our social dharma, but the logical and rational approach too. This is the correct social philosophy.
There are infinite semblances of relativity in the universal arena. Hence no governmental order or law of inheritance can be treated as perfect because they are embedded in relativity. If we are to build a perfect order in the mundane and supramundane spheres, we will have to depend upon something absolute. The universe, which is a psychic projection of the Cosmic Mind, is a creation of relativity, but ownership lies with the Macrocosm. For a perfect socio-political order, there should be a happy blending of relativity and absolute.
If we accept the rational principles of Cosmic inheritance, the question of foreign and native lands does not arise. The whole universe is our paternal property, and we are the members of the Cosmic society. We are free to move and settle anywhere and everywhere we like.
There is infinite thirst in the microcosm, and as such this thirst cannot be quenched by acquiring physical wealth. Our mental longings are trifarious – that is, physical, psychic and spiritual. The microcosm tries to fulfil its infinite physical hunger through physical resources which, though very big, are finite. Hence the infinite physical thirst will remain unquenched forever, even if the microcosm becomes the master of the whole planetary world. Therefore it is necessary to divert the physical thirst (which is infinite) towards psychic and spiritual pursuits. Among these three strata the psychic and spiritual worlds are infinite, so there will be no clash or exploitation in quenching the thirsts in these spheres. Otherwise the unsatisfied physical desires will remain in [potential] form, gradually acquire momentum, and finally revolt.
Human thirsts are trifarious. Ananda Marga wants to divert the unquenchable physical thirst towards psychic and spiritual pursuits. The duty of Renaissance Universal(2) is to make intellectual appeals, and the work of the Proutists(3) is to see whether law and order is strictly enforced or not. If it is not enforced strictly or if it goes against the principles of Yama and Niyama,(4) enforcement is to be done by creating pressure of circumstances.
There should be rational acquisition and rational distribution of mundane property, otherwise the peace and tranquillity of society will be disturbed. The per capita limit of acquisition should be fixed according to the collective resources of the universal society.
To materialize the ideals of rational acquisition and rational distribution of mundane resources, our first approach will be spiritual, followed by psychic. Where even the psychic approach fails, the application of force(5) would also be supported for the greater interest of the society. Those who are trying to avoid this fight are shirking their human responsibility.
Human progress is always resultant progress. The speed of progress will go on accelerating by clash and cohesion. The application of force is the essence of life the rudimental factor, the spirit of life. Those who speak against the application of force are hypocrites. Lack of the application of force means death. The necessity of the application of force is always felt by us at every hour, at every moment. Non-application of force is of no value in either the physical world or the psychic world, or even in the spiritual world. Non-application of force is a bogus ism.
The universe is the projected psychic objectivity of the Macrocosm. Everything is owned by the Cosmic Entity. We are to use [the resources in] the universe; ownership lies with the Supreme Father. The owners of land are neither the tenants nor the zamindars [landlords]. The wrong and illogical propagation that ownership lies with the toiling people only gives rise to conflict and chaos. Accepting the principles of Cosmic inheritance, we are to utilize [the resources in] the universe to the best of our capability.
The zamindars should not be given any compensation for the socialization of land. Rationality demands that if the owner is a widow, an old man or a minor boy, they should be given stipends, and unemployed youths should be provided with jobs. Small zamindars having no other resources for their livelihood should be awarded stipends. As a matter of principle the system of compensation cannot be accepted.
The mind requires a psychic shelter. Our feelings are nothing but its shelter and are physico-psychic projections. Spiritual sádhaná(6) increases the boundaries of projected objects. The angle depends upon the volume of the projected mass – that is, the arena of projection.
The caste system is a creation of the cunning intellectuals of the Medieval Age. In the Vipra Era they wanted to perpetuate their privileged position for their descendants. To achieve this end, those cunning intellectuals wrote thousands of books and compiled thousands of God-centred verses only to show that the caste system is a creation of God. This was a psychological way of infusing the illogical idea [of casteism].
Those thinking of the upliftment of the Bundela Rajputs will think of the welfare of the entire Rajput society if their mental arena is increased as a result of sádhaná. With the further expansion of their mental object, they will feel proud to be Hindus, then Biharis, then Indians, and finally members of the whole universe. After rational and synthetic deep thinking, they will identify themselves with every particle of the universe, which will result in the feeling of oneness with the Cosmic Entity. This is the stage of savikalpa samádhi [qualified Cosmic absorption].
So, every feeling less than that of universal projection is bad. To propagate nationalism is a mental disease like casteism, provincialism, etc. The panacea for all [such] diseases is universalism – that is, 360-degree projection. People may say that the angle of nationalism is bigger than that of provincialism or casteism, but in fact the degree depends upon the volume of the projected mass. For example, Pakistan has less population than the Hindu population of India, so the angle of Hindu communalism is greater than the angle of Pakistani nationalism. The population of Swiss nationals is less than the population of Bengal; here provincialism is better than nationalism. The population of Nepal is less than the Rajput population in India; here the angle of casteism is bigger than that of Nepalese nationalism. We must not support any of them.
17 October 1959, Jamalpur
Universalism does not depend upon any relative factor, hence it is free from the vices of ism. Ism thrives on the angle of group interest. Among many other factors, ism is a major factor in war. War is not an ideological clash. Those who are eager to establish peace should shake off nationalism and other allied isms.
If we are to shake off these isms, we have to organize a universal body and go on strengthening its power. This will be the first phase in establishing a world government. In the initial stage it will be a law-framing body. The first beneficial effect of such a body will be that no country will be allowed to frame laws detrimental to the interests of its minorities. The right to execute those laws will be vested with the local government and not with the world government. The world government will decide the principles on the basis of which a particular law will be enforced in a particular country.
There will be two houses: a lower house and an upper house. In the lower house, representatives will be sent according to the population of the country. In the upper house, representatives will be sent country-wise. First bills will be placed before the lower house, and before their final acceptance they will be duly discussed in the upper house. Small countries which cannot send a single representative to the lower house will have the opportunity to discuss the merits and demerits of proposed acts with other countries in the upper house.
Human beings are rapidly conquering space and time. The boundary of the world government will go on increasing, and one day it may extend throughout the entire planetary world. One language – that is, the common vishva bháśá [universal language] – is a necessary device for the exchange of ideas among different linguistic groups. Today the English language has all the qualities to be the vishva bháśá, but this is subject to change according to changes in time.
For the common vishva bháśá, a highly scientific script is required. Nowadays Roman script is the most scientific script. Local scripts should also be recognized for local languages. Both Roman script and local scripts should thrive side by side.
There should not be any prescribed national or international dress. Selection of dress depends upon the climatic conditions of a particular place. There should be complete freedom in the choice of dress.
Culture is an ambiguous term. It is a collective expression of social life and is of composite structure. The Sanskrit words for culture are saḿskrti and krśt́i. Saḿskrti is used in a good sense and krśt́i in a general sense. There are certain prima facie local variations, but there is no difference in the subterranean cultural flow of the human society. The difference is external and not internal. Culture is one for the entire world. Common factors for the entire humanity (that is, culture in the true sense of the term) should always be encouraged, but prima facie differences should never be encouraged. Those who encourage these differences help the fissiparous tendencies which endanger human progress. To establish a cosmopolitan cultural outlook, we have to wipe out prima facie differences through matrimony and other socio-economic blendings.
Nationalism is being rapidly replaced by internationalism. A day is sure to come when this international colour will be changed into universalism. The feeling of nationalism will [then] lie dormant within the scope of internationalism. For a better social structure, humanity is sure to give up all filthy ideas of caste, [religious] community, nationality, etc.
As the psychic projection [of human beings] goes on increasing, the world is becoming smaller and smaller. A day is sure to come when human thirst, not being quenched by the fulfilment of natural urges, will require a broader field of mental vision. A new, universalistic human race is sure to evolve. For this, we want a common language (medium of interlingual expression) for the entire human race.
While fighting corruption there should be a constructive ideal. Different civic movements in India have failed to give benevolent service because they lacked a constructive ideal. They fought only for the sake of fight. Therefore it is necessary that the ideal should be first, the ideal second and the ideal always.
Those who lack a constructive ideal help the capitalists in their exploitation. Only criticizing capitalism will not be of any service to the people, rather it will help the antisocial elements to find or invent more tactics for exploitation. This is the condition in India today. The leftist groups are engaged in criticizing the capitalists, which is bearing no fruitful results, and the capitalists have captured power by influencing the ruling party.
Our approach should be to adopt a constructive ideal, and we should wage a ceaseless and pactless struggle against all anti-human and antisocial factors. We are to fight capitalism and not the capitalists. We are to wipe out this ism from human society because this ism is paralysing humanity. The capitalists are suffering from a sort of mental ailment, and it is our foremost duty to radically cure them by diverting their physical thirst towards psychic and spiritual pursuits.
18 October 1959, Jamalpur
There cannot be a socialistic government under a democratic framework. Those who speak highly of socialism from a democratic platform befool the public. It is just to circumvent the constitution and to secure public confidence that leaders speak on socialism and promise to establish a socialistic pattern of society, which is nothing but an absurdity.(7) These so-called leaders are nothing but socialist show-boys.(8)
If a particular country or district is highly industrialized, that will not help in uplifting or changing the economic standard of other parts of the world or country. Hence industry should be decentralized, but key industries should be centralized. For example, the spinning industry should be centralized, and around it there should be a weaving industry run on [the basis of] decentralization principles. Even in areas where the climate is extreme, industries such as spinning can be established through artificial vaporization. This will help to create a self-supporting economic unit, which is badly needed. The area of self-supporting economic units will increase with the increase of transportation facilities. One day this world will become one economic unit. A day may come when the whole of the planetary world will become one economic unit.
Large-scale and small-scale industries should remain side by side. Key industries should be managed by the immediate government, because it is not possible to run them efficiently on a cooperative basis due to their complexities and hugeness. Small-scale industries should run on a cooperative basis, and the small industries which cannot be managed by cooperatives should be left to private enterprise. Thus: (1) small businesses should be left to individuals; (2) big industries should be owned by the immediate government; and (3) the industries in between the big and small industries should be run on a cooperative basis.
The central government should not control large-scale industries because this may hamper the interests of local people. Where there is a federal system of government, these industries should be controlled by the immediate government, and where there is unitary government, they should be managed by local bodies.
Industrial decentralization is only possible in a collective economic structure. No profit motive will remain in such a structure. Capitalists start industries only where the following factors are available: (1) capital; (2) labour; (3) favourable [economic] climate; and (4) a ready market for sales. They always try to lessen the cost of production, hence they will never support the principle of decentralization. In the collective economic structure the profit motive has no place – here industry is for consumption. In the collective economic structure, self-supporting economic units are to be strengthened.
It is an age of science. Science should be utilized for service and blessedness. There should be rationalization of industry that is, an old machine should be replaced by a new and more scientific one. It is no use continuing with old and worn-out methods such as the carká [spinning wheel] in the age of radioactivity [nuclear energy] and rockets.
It is incorrect to say that rationalization is the root cause of the unemployment problem. Such propaganda is carried out by leaders having little knowledge of socio-economic philosophy. The question of unemployment arises only in the capitalistic framework where industry is for profit. In the collective economic structure, where industry stands for consumption and not for profit, the question of unemployment does not arise. Here the number of labourers will not be lessened; rather the working hours will be reduced and the remaining hours will be used in mental and spiritual pursuits. The reduction in the working hours depends not only on yield, but on the demand for commodities and the availability of labour.
In industry labourers should be provided with incentives by starting and increasing the scope of piece-work and the bonus system of work.(9) The right of management by labourers in factory affairs should be clearly accepted. These two factors will increase the out-turn of the factory, because under such circumstances labourers will feel an incentive to work sincerely. Only sermonizing high-sounding texts to increase output is not sufficient. Let labourers feel that the more the factory earns a profit by increased out-turn, the more profit they will share.
Cooperative ownership cannot stand in open competition with individual enterprise. Thus it requires protective armour – that is, exemption from sales tax, duties, etc. This protection should be withdrawn slowly. Protective armour should be limited to essential commodities only. Individual enterprise should be limited to those commodities which are not essential for life, such as betel shops, tea stalls, restaurants, etc.
In society males are in an advantageous position. Due to economic dependence on men, a section of forsaken women is forced to take to the profession of prostitution. When women will enjoy economic independence and equal status in society, this practice will cease to exist. Society will have to offer honourable positions to those women who give up this nasty business and rectify their character. Prostitution has a socio-economic cause.
The dowry system is based on two factors: the economic predominance of either men or women in the society, and the disproportionate number of females or males. In Burma females were economically independent, so males had to pay a dowry at the time of their wedding. In the Punjab the number of males was more than the number of females, hence there was no problem of the dowry system and widow marriage. These social injustices can be removed by allowing economic independence to women, and by encouraging inter-caste and international marriages. Such a movement is urgently required at present.
It has become a fashion today to cry for peace. But the preachers of peace propagate the gospel of peace and keep their powder dry. Will their vocal mission be successful? No, never. Peace is a relative term. It is the result of fight.
When the static force becomes predominant there will be peace, which is termed tamoguńii shánti [static peace]. When the sentient force dominates there will also be peace, which is called sáttvikii shánti [sentient peace]. This fight between the static and sentient forces will continue as long as the universe exists. There cannot be any absolute peace in the realm of relativity. Absolute peace may shower down in an individual’s life, but not on the collective body. When individual animation is suspended in Cosmic animation, or when individual aspiration is suspended in Cosmic aspiration, the result is absolute peace. Absolute peace in the collective body means the suspension of the universe, which is an impossibility. Hence, to cry for peace [avoiding fight] is hypocrisy.
The craze for peace may be accepted as a diplomatic policy, but it cannot be accepted as a principle. Fight is the essence of life, and peace can be restored only after fight. Thus, in case of any invasion, if the leaders of the invaded country are really keen to establish peace, they should fight against the imperialistic motive of the invading country.
Pardoning is an individual attribute. It can be practised in individual life only, but it cannot be part of collective sádhaná. Those who poke their noses into collective affairs, or pardon people ignoring the harm they inflicted on the collective body, commit a social crime. Mahatma Gandhi should not have pressed one government to pay fifty crores of rupees to another government against the interests and sentiments of the people of that country.(10)
It is wrong to believe that the rapid increase in the population will in any way affect the collective economic structure. Today capitalists are trying to check the growth of the population by propagating the practice of birth control, because increases in the population will be detrimental to capitalism. In a collective economic structure one need not support birth control. Rather, the growth of the population will be helpful in the production of essential commodities. In the scientific age one tablet will be sufficient for a complete meal. So we are not to fear the increase of the population.
Death means want of parallelism between physical and psychic waves. Physical waves change due to old age and disease, while mental waves change due to crude or subtle thinking. In case of the detachment of physical waves, a dead person may get his or her life back with the help of scientific processes, but this is not possible in the case of psychic detachment. This is because in such a case, even if parallel mental waves are created afresh by scientific processes, person X and not person Y will regain life. If the length of the wave becomes infinite (a straight line) due to spiritual sádhaná, one will merge into Parama Puruśa.
A time will come when the mind will be created in laboratories. Children will be sold in laboratories. Human progress is natural progress. When laboratory babes will be produced, nature will slowly snatch away the child-producing capacity of men and women. There will be no fathers and mothers. The whole social order will be changed. The reproductive urge in human beings will be utilized in higher and subtler pursuits. Those laboratory boys and girls will be more mentally and spiritually developed than the mortals of the present day.
A correct philosophy and a correct method of sádhaná are the panacea for all physical, metaphysical and spiritual diseases. In remoulding the social order, politicians will be of no practical value.
19 October 1959, Jamalpur
In all walks of present-day life, the dark shadows of immorality are fast taking definite shape and hampering human progress. A very strong moral force is required to wipe out this filth of immorality. One cannot expect this moral force from the government power functioning within a democratic structure. We expect it from non-political ends. The government, be it fascist, imperialist, republican, dictatorial, bureaucratic or democratic, is sure to become tyrannical if there is no moral force to check the capricious activities of the leaders or of the party in power. Immoral activities from the side of the government give rise to mass upsurge.
Middle-class people, with their developed intellect excited by pecuniary troubles, take the leading part in such a mass upheaval against the reign of terror, and finally a change in the sceptre is effected by this politically conscious sector of society. Under the democratic set-up, the middle-class people who function as a part of the government find it very difficult to raise a voice of active protest. They are the silent sufferers, getting no recognition for their sufferings. This is the greatest drawback of the democratic system of government.
The annals of human civilization say that the downfall of a particular government becomes inevitable if it goes against the collective interests of the middle-class people. In an educationally backward country, where the mass is not politically conscious, the talk and practice of adult franchise corrupts the governmental machinery. The government proves hostile to the interests of the middle-class people because hypocritical leaders cannot purchase their votes or befool them with high-sounding assurances. The corrupt leaders apply all their cunningness to purchase votes from the backward people. The more cunning the candidates are, the more successful they become. Hence the formation of a politically-conscious group, or better still a politically-educated group, is essential in every country to check the corruption prevalent among political leaders.
The world is moving very fast, and at every step the necessity of such a group is very strongly felt. Youths form an important part of the so-called politically-educated group, and the student community is a distinguished section of it. Deficiencies in the political structure cause deterioration in the educational system, and thus adversely affect the future of these students. Governments, being the economic force behind the universities, compel the universities to play the pitiable role of “Your most obedient servant”. The sole purpose of forming Proutist organizations is to put a moral check on the immoral practices in our individual and collective lives.
The present-day politicians misguide students for their own selfish ends. Certain sections of students have become puppets in their hands. They have lost their originality, and hence are unable to work as a moral check. You Proutists should work as a non-political group strictly adhering to the principles of Yama and Niyama.
Those who have a correct philosophy and a correct spiritual sádhaná based on the principles of Yama and Niyama will be the guiding personalities in the society of tomorrow. It is the duty of conscious people to snatch away the physical power and the intellectual leadership from the hands of political hypocrites. Politicians are of no use to society because they are engaged in the business of mudslinging and nothing else.
If sadvipras [spiritual revolutionaries who follow Yama and Niyama] get active mass support, revolution is bound to come. In case a government adopts the ideals of Prout, the rule of sadvipras will prevail. If the same is not adopted by the government, a physical revolution is sure to come, and ultimately power will be transferred to the sadvipras.
The motive of the politicians is only to capture power. They befool the public with high-sounding words. Therefore it is necessary that the public should be politically educated, because in that case politicians will not be able to cheat them. The time is sure to come when all their cheating tactics will fail to produce any effect, and the public will snatch away their mask of social service. At present the general mass is not politically conscious. The intelligentsia exploit their ignorance. It is the duty of Proutists to challenge this so-called intelligentsia.
There should be a world militia, but the numerical strength of the military is to be gradually reduced. Even after the formation of the world government, intra-unit and inter-unit conflicts will not cease to exist. Therefore the military requirement will remain forever. The creation is the result of fight between Vidyá [introversial force] and Avidyá [extroversial force], hence the military will be an indispensable item for the society.
20 October 1959, Jamalpur
In democratic countries the party in power tries to propagate their party ideals through the educational system. They prescribe only those text books which coincide with their party ideals. The universities are forced to surrender before the government because of their financial dependency. The Proutist movement will have to make the universities and educational institutions free from dirty party politics, otherwise the educational system will go on changing according to the rise or fall of different party governments. The duty of the government is to finance the universities and not to interfere in their internal affairs. The broadcasting system, too, should be free from government control.
For a good and healthy society there should be good, healthy and well-educated citizens. Politicians are unable to rectify the defects of the present society. Their course of action is detrimental to the growth of a healthy society.
There are several forms of governmental structure, and among them the democratic structure is highly appreciated [by some persons]. Democracy is defined as “government of the people, by the people and for the people.” But in fact it is the rule of the majority. Hence democracy means “mobocracy” because the government in a democratic structure is guided by mob psychology. The majority of the society are fools; wise people are always in a minority. Thus, finally democracy is nothing but “foolocracy”.
In the democratic framework of society the government may be very keen to pass laws to check corruption, but the government is not equally keen to enforce those laws, because the leaders have to depend upon the votes collected through the media of influential antisocial elements. There are three important methods to check corruption: (1) the humane approach; (2) violence; and (3) strict laws; but in a democratic society we cannot get the third item fully, and there is no scope for the second item within a democratic structure.
The best form of government is the [benevolent] dictatorship of the sadvipras. The sadvipras will elect a dictatorial board, and that board will elect ministers and a chairperson. The chairperson will be the constitutional head. If the chairperson cannot carry out his or her duties efficiently, the board will replace him or her by electing another chairperson. As a principle, individual dictatorship cannot be accepted.
The sadvipras will select good persons to carry out the executive duties in the governmental and non-governmental spheres. They will also nominate top-ranking officials. The board will have power to dismiss them if they are found unfit for any responsibility. The synthetic portion of the government will be electional and the analytic portion will be selectional. The synthetic portion will dictate policy matters and the analytic portion will execute the accepted policy. Thus our socio-economico-political structure will be selecto-electional.
The sadvipras will capture power either by intellectual revolution or by mobilizing the mass. The duty of Proutists will be to help sadvipras to become powerful and to strengthen their hands by mobilizing the mass. Renaissance Universal will carry on intellectual and moralistic propaganda.
A socio-economic ideal can be established by either of the following two methods: (1) intellectual revolution; (2) physical revolution.
Intellectual revolution stands for the propagation of ideals, but to materialize these ideals takes a pretty long time. Suffering humanity is not going to wait for this. Intellectual revolution is possible in theory only.
When the hopes and aspirations of a group of people – a majority or a minority – are not fulfilled in a democratic framework, a non-democratic or sanguinary revolution is sure to take place. Such a revolution, although undesirable, is inevitable and irresistible.
Physical revolution denotes fight against all factors which go against the principle of public welfare. The Proutists will inaugurate a new era of revolution against all sorts of fissiparous tendencies and social evils. If a country’s laws are not strong enough to rectify the conduct of immoralists, the Proutists will do something concrete.
The locus standi of a nation depends on the following factors: (1) common history; (2) common tradition; (3) common territory; (4) race; (5) [common] faith; (6) [common] language; (7) [common] sentiments; and (8) common ideals. Among these factors items one to seven are relative factors and as such are of a transitory nature only. Within the scope of item eight there can be a blending of absolute with relativity.
The absolute factor is the ideal of Cosmic ownership. (The universe is a creation of Brahma [the Supreme Entity] and as such the ownership of the universe is with Brahma. We may enjoy and utilize the objects created by Brahma, but we cannot declare that any item is mine. Everything is our common patrimony.) We are to accept this factor within the scope of relativities. Not only will the common spiritual factor unify the inhabitants of multilingual or multi-regional countries; the entire universal society will come under the banner of this common spiritual ideal and become one.
As intellectual revolution is of a democratic nature, Proutists are to make people conscious of their rights and demands. [This can be done by:]
1. Starting study circles and popularizing [ideological] literature. This is the first phase of intellectual propaganda. It stands for ideological education.
2. Platform propaganda and mobilizing the mass. This is for ideological consciousness because the mass can never be ideologically educated.
3. The Proutists supporting the sadvipras in democratic fights (that is, helping them in occupying seats in parliament, assemblies, local self-governments, cooperative societies, etc.)
In the first phase, one item; in the second phase, two items; and in the third phase, three items.
Unless [the benevolent] dictatorship [of the sadvipras] is established, socialization is not possible. Socialization cannot thrive in a democratic framework.
21 October 1959, Jamalpur
The universe is just like a joint family. Peace and tranquillity depend upon a well-knit socio-economic structure. The moulding of the socio-economic structure depends upon ideological outlook. First we should have a constructive ideal. The ideal should be not only the culminating point but also the starting point, which will always be supplying us with vital juice.
We want a Cosmic society, a Cosmic tie of fraternity. Now, for the sake of Cosmic fraternity, we should encourage all common factors and discourage all fissiparous tendencies. Regarding local variations, we should keep mum.
The universal society has only one culture. It has humanitarian value at its very fundament. Human society throughout the universe has only one human sentiment, and that sentiment makes people laugh in happiness and shed tears in sorrow. They try to help others, form society, live peacefully and die peacefully. This is what is called human culture. We should encourage this fundamental culture. It is a connecting link between one person and another, between so-called nation and nation. The self- dividing tendency is the creation of persons with vested interests. They are the demons of society. They are polished satans and warmongers. We will have to start a ceaseless and pactless fight against their activities.
For the sake of the solidarity of the Cosmic society, we are to start an economic structure based on common human factors and common necessities. The first and foremost factor for a sound economic structure is that:
1. The minimum necessities of human society should be guaranteed. We are not only to recognize these requirements, but also to guarantee the availability of the requirements, which includes our social responsibility of supplying individuals with purchasing power.
For a well-knit socio-economic order we require a few other factors too. They are:
2. A common philosophy of life. People unite on a common ideology. Unless the inhabitants of this vast planetary world accept one vital ideology, there is little chance of social synthesis. In the absence of such an ideology, quarrels among the members are inevitable. Hence a common philosophy is essential.
Among all the crude and subtle philosophies of life, only one philosophy rests on the Absolute, and other philosophies depend on relative factors. Among the different schools of philosophy, the cruder the philosophy, the weaker the social cohesion. When people unite for a subtle motive, the philosophy becomes subtler and subtler, and the social ties become stronger. When this subtlety reaches absoluteness, it becomes permanent.
The absolute philosophy is the philosophy dealing with Brahmavidyá [intuitional science]. It does not come within the scope of physical and relative philosophy. As far as the permanent peace and tranquillity of this planetary world is concerned, we should have a strong philosophy based on the Cosmic ideal, Brahmavidyá.
3. Universality in constitutional structure. Laws were framed by kings and leaders of different countries on the basis of their local traditions and sentiments. So really speaking law is an offshoot of feelings of virtue and vice and is a by-product of religious faith. The applied value of virtue and vice should be properly assessed, and laws should be framed on that fundament. For the entire universe we are to propose universal law.
There should be little difference among cardinal law, moral law and human law. Cardinal law means universally-accepted law, and its scope should be increased. We should have nothing to do with feelings of virtue and vice; or we may say that feelings of virtue and vice should not depend upon religious feelings but on universal acceptance. We should judge virtue and vice from the welfare angle of vision. Ours should be a never-ending process of minimizing the differences among these three [types of] laws. For the entire universal structure, law should be one.
4. Common penal code. The penal code should also be prepared on the basis of a constitutional structure. The constitution should serve as the fundament for developing a penal code.
The term “guaranteed availability” [in 1. above] deserves special mention. To give incentives to intellectuals we are to provide them with certain special amenities of life. A day will come when these special amenities will not be required, as a result of continued spiritual practices. The minimum requirements are to be guaranteed to all. Each and every human being requires clothes, medicine, housing accommodation, proper education, food for proper nourishment, etc. These demands must be fulfilled. Intellectuals, scientists and people performing special services require certain amenities. Ours will be a never-ending process to minimize the gap between these two, but as a result of minimization it will never come to zero. For example, in the present circumstances every person requires a bicycle. But leaders and intellectuals will require motor cars, and we are to guarantee these as special amenities. But after that our endeavour will be to guarantee one car per capita to the public, and at that time it will be noticed that the leaders and intellectuals require an aeroplane, and so on. So we see that the gap between the minimum necessities and the special amenities will never come to an end. Ours will be a never-ending fight to minimize the gap between the two.
The per capita income of the universe will never be uniform. The gap will remain unbridged forever. Diversity is the law of nature. If the diversity ceases to exist, the universe will also cease to exist. It is an impossibility to do away with difference. But it is part and parcel of our dharma sádhaná to minimize the difference in the socio-economic sphere of life.
In the economic structure of the society, the purchasing power of the people plays the most important role in their all-round physical welfare. During the period of Shayesta Khan in Bengal,(11) rice was sold at the rate of two annas per maund [approximately twelve-and-a-half paise per forty kilos], but people were starving. It was only because there was no purchasing capacity among the people.
Liberty: Every living creature should have liberty in certain spheres of life freedom in certain spheres of life. But that liberty must not be allowed to surmount the common cause, particularly in the physical sphere. We have no right to go against the collective interest. Liberty should be drastically and mercilessly curtailed in the physical sphere, but there should be freedom in the psychic and spiritual strata, such as freedom of thought and speech, and freedom in spiritual practice.
The scope of the limitation on individual liberty should be demarcated on the principles of pápa and puńya. These have a cardinal significance. Pápa means “to go against the collective interest”, and puńya means “helping the society and accelerating the collective progress”. Here the shloka of Vyasa may be accepted as the standard:
Paropokárah puńyáya pápáya parapii d́anam
[Doing good to others is a virtue. Torturing others is a vice.]
22 October 1959, Jamalpur
(1) In the Dáyabhága system the heirs’ right of inheritance is subject to the discretion of the father, who enjoys the right to disinherit any of the heirs.
For a more detailed discussion of the author’s views on inheritance, see the chapter “Ideal System of Inheritance”, Caryácarya Part 1, 1956.
(2) The author founded Renaissance Universal on 27 January 1958. Eds.
(3) “Prout” is an acronym for Progressive Utilization Theory, the socio-economic theory propounded by the author. Proutists are those who support the progressive utilization of all factors. Eds.
(4) Yama and Niyama are the cardinal principles of human morality. See A Guide to Human Conduct, 1957, by the author. Eds.
(5) Ahiḿsá and non-violence are not synonymous. Ahiḿsá means “not to harm anybody” while non-violence means “non-application of force”. The equivalent Sanskrit word for violence is cańd́aniiti, and for non-violence, acańd́aniiti.
(6) Sádhaná literally means “sustained effort”. “Spiritual sádhaná” refers to the sustained spiritual effort, through meditation or spiritual practices, required to achieve oneness with the Supreme Entity. It usually implies the effort of an individual. “Collective sádhaná” refers to collective spiritual effort, while dharma sádhaná refers to a spiritual way of life. Eds.
(7) At the time of independence, India adopted a democratic constitution which was based on the Westminster model. Socialism was incompatible with the democratic ideals enshrined in this constitution. Eds.
(8) Here the author is criticizing the hypocrisy of some well-known politicians who led India after independence. (A famous British thinker coined the phrase “socialist show-boy” to denounce India’s most prominent exponent of a socialistic pattern of society.) Eds.
(9) In the piece-work system labourers receive the profit or part of the profit from each item they produce. The more labourers produce, the greater their income.
In the bonus system the bonus is calculated on the basis of the time saved in the production of commodities. The money value of this calculation is given to the labourers.
(10) When India gained independence, the leaders of Pakistan demanded fifty crores of rupees (500 million rupees) from the Indian government. Mahatma Gandhi insisted that this amount be paid to Pakistan. Eds.
(11) The Mughal ruler Shayesta Khan was the military governor of Bengal for approximately twenty-five years in the second half of the seventeenth century. Eds.